All businesses, regardless of their form, will encounter certain organizational costs. These costs can include developing a business plan, obtaining necessary licenses and permits, conducting market research studies, acquiring equipment, obtaining the advice of counsel, and other costs.
The sole proprietorship is the simplest form of organization, and the least expensive to establish. There are no statutory requirements unique to this form of organization. From a regulatory standpoint, the business owner only needs to obtain the necessary business licenses and tax identification numbers, register the business name, and begin operations. Many individuals begin their business as a sole proprietorship. As the business expands or more owners are needed for financial or other reasons, a partnership or corporation may be formed.
A general partnership is more complex to organize than a sole proprietorship, but involves fewer formalities and legal restrictions than a limited partnership, corporation, or limited liability company. Basic elements of partnership law are established by statute, but most issues can be determined by agreement of the partners. A written partnership agreement is highly recommended, but is not legally required. Factors to consider in a partnership agreement are listed in a later section of this Guide. The partnership agreement is not required to be filed with any governmental entity. Note that under the Revised Uniform Partnership Act (RUPA) of 1997,Minnesota Statutes Chapter 323A, partnerships have the option of filing with the Secretary of State certain statements regarding the authority and liability of partners as well as the status of the partnership.
A limited partnership must meet specific statutory requirements at the time of organization, and the offering of ownership interests in the limited partnership is subject to tax and securities laws. Accordingly, the limited partnership will be more complex and expensive to organize than a general partnership.
Limited Liability Partnership and Limited Liability Limited Partnership
An existing general partnership may elect limited liability partnership status by filing a limited liability partnership registration with the Secretary of State. Such registration is effective for an indefinite period of time. Limited liability limited partnerships are also permitted. Anyone interested in forming an LLP or an LLLP is advised to seek the advice of counsel. Note also under RUPA (i.e., Minnesota Statutes Chapter 323A), limited liability limited partnership registrations have an indefinite term, although the Secretary of State’s Office will revoke LLP or LLLP status if the required annual registration is not filed. Limited liability partnerships generally follow partnership law with specific exceptions as provided by law.
The corporation is a formal and complex form of organization, and accordingly can be expensive to organize. Procedures and criteria for forming the corporation and for its governance are established by statute.
FAILURE TO FOLLOW THE STATUTORY FORMALITIES CAN RESULT IN LOSS OF CORPORATE STATUS AND IMPOSITION OF PERSONAL LIABILITY ON THE INCORPORATORS OR SHAREHOLDERS
The S corporation faces further complexity in that the election of S corporation status for federal tax purposes must be filed with the Internal Revenue Service in a timely fashion. In addition, care must be taken in the transfer of shares not to inadvertently lose S corporation status.
Because of the complexities involved in incorporating, corporations often will make greater use of professional advisors, which will increase costs. Other costs associated with incorporating include filing fees, which are greater for corporations, and the costs associated with tax compliance and preparing various government reports. If the corporation does business in other states, it generally will be required to register to do business in those states, thus further increasing the cost and complexity of incorporation. And, if the corporation will raise capital by selling securities, the compliance costs involved will be substantial.
Minnesota has attempted to simplify the incorporation process by including in the Minnesota Business Corporation Act all of the rules pertaining to the internal governance of the corporation. A corporation that agrees to be governed as specified in the statute need only file standard form articles of incorporation with the Secretary of State. The corporation that wishes to vary the statutory requirements generally must do so in its articles of incorporation.
Prior consultation with legal counsel can assist the incorporators in determining which approach is most appropriate for the corporation. Further information on incorporating appears in the section of this Guide titled Forming a Minnesota Business Corporation.
Limited Liability Company
The limited liability company combines aspects of the partnership and the corporation. It can be expected to be similar to a corporation in complexity and cost to organize. As with a corporation, the procedures and criteria for forming a limited liability company are specified by statute.
FAILURE TO FOLLOW THE STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS CAN RESULT IN LOSS OF LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY STATUS AND IMPOSITION OF PERSONAL LIABILITY ON THE ORGANIZERS AND MEMBERS OF THE COMPANY
There is very little case law to guide organizational and operational decisions although the limited liability company law is modeled on the business corporation law. For this reason, owners of a limited liability company may need to consult often with their professional advisors, increasing their costs.
Under the Treasury Regulations dealing with the federal income tax classification of business entities, the organizers of a Minnesota limited liability company have some flexibility in choosing the tax status of their entity. Professional advice in this area is strongly encouraged.
As is the case for Minnesota corporations, organizers of a limited liability company may agree to have the company governed by the provisions of Minnesota statutes. In that case, standard form articles of organization may be used to organize the company.
Further information on forming a limited liability company appears in the section of this Guide on Forming a Minnesota Limited Liability Company.
CREDITS: This is an excerpt from A Guide to Starting a Business in Minnesota, provided by the Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development, Small Business Assistance Office, Twenty-eighth Edition, January 2010, written by Charles A. Schaffer, Madeline Harris, and Mark Simmer. Copies are available without charge from the Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development, Small Business Assistance Office.